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The Effra Clinic - Assessment Tools & Testing

Tools & Testing

Neurodevelopmental conditions such as ADHD and autism are clinical diagnoses. This means that there is no one test or tool that can determine the presence of these conditions. Diagnosis is made by gathering as much information as possible about your background as well as observing current behaviour and comparing this information gathered to the diagnostic criteria set out in DSM -5 (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders fifth edition) and ICD-11 (International Classification of Disease, 11th edition) and making a clinical judgement informed by the experience and the expertise of the clinician as to whether diagnostic threshold is met. A thorough assessment will also take into account your physical and mental health and consider what else may be contributing to day to day differences or difficulties. 


We use a variety of assessment tools to aid assessment. While standardised and structured assessments can provide valuable information and support clinical decision making it is important to note that they should not be used as an alternative to thorough clinician interview and their results need to be interpreted by an experienced professional.

  • The Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule 2 - (ADOS2)
    The Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS-2) is a standardised assessment of communication, social interaction and imaginative use of materials conducted with the person under assessment. It lasts about 1 hour. The ADOS-2 consists of standard activities that allow the examiner to observe behaviours that have been identified as important to the diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorders at different developmental levels and chronological ages. It involves a number of tasks and conversational items that are different according to the level of expressed language, ranging from imitation play and use of balloons and bubbles for preschool children to telling a story from a book, use of creative play and questions for adolescents and adults; in any case the tasks are designed to elicit social interaction and understanding. The ADOS-2 is an internationally recognised tool to assist the clinical assessment and contributes both observations and quantifiable results via the diagnostic algorithm and the comparison score.
  • Autism Diagnostic Interview (ADI-R)
    The Autism Diagnostic Interview Revised (ADI-R) is a clinical diagnostic instrument to be used with parents when assessing autism in children and adults. This very detailed interview focuses on behaviour in three main areas: qualities of reciprocal social interaction; communication and language; and restricted and repetitive, stereotyped interests and behaviours, trying to gather examples from early childhood (4-5 years of age) and at the time of the assessment. It lasts 2-3 hours and is completed by one of our neurodevelopmental specialist trained in its use. The interview is usually completed via a phone or video call.
  • Cognitive screening tools used
    The Effra Clinic uses online cognitive assessment tools to provide objective and quantifiable information on cognitive ability and individual strengths and weaknesses which may be associated with neurodevelopmental conditions and mental illness. The suite of tests accurately measure core elements of cognition like short-term memory, reasoning, attention and verbal ability and provides information which will inform diagnostic assessment and provide information to the patient and their clinicians which can tailor treatment and support. The Continuous Performance Test is the cognitive screening test which has the best evidence base for supporting ADHD diagnosis in children and in adults although its use cannot replace a clinical diagnostic interview which remains the recommended ADHD assessment. As part of your ADHD diagnostic assessment you will be asked to complete a suite of cognitive screening tests at home via your desk top, laptop or tablet. The results of these tests will be discussed as part of your assessment and you will be provided with a detailed report on the screening outcomes as part of your assessment report. The Effra Clinic uses Creyos cognitive screening routinely as part of ADHD diagnostic assessment and as clinically indicated for other assessments. You can access a Creyos test quick demo here, and more information about Creyos here. For further information please see our Creyos Health Patient Handout and Creyos Client Brochure. The Effra Clinic also uses QbCheck as an additional measure of attention, activity and impulsivity when this is clinically indicated in addition to Creyos cognitive screening. For more information about QbCheck, please visit
  • DIVA Test
    The Effra Clinic uses the DIVA 5.0 assessment tool which is a structured Diagnostic Interview for Adult ADHD. It provides a structured approached to investigating the presence of DSM-5 ADHD symptoms criteria in adults as well as exploring whether impairment is present in five domains:- education, work, social relationships, social activities/leisure time, partner/family relationships and self-esteem. It is completed with a neurodevelopmental specialist over about 90mins and it is usually done via a video call. ​ Because ADHD in adults is a lifelong condition that starts in childhood, it is necessary to look for the presence of symptoms and any associated impairment in childhood, using a retrospective interview for childhood behaviour. Whenever possible the information should be gathered from the patient and supplemented by information from informants that knew the person as a child (usually parents or close relatives). More information about the DIVA diagnostic tool for adult ADHD is available here.
  • Pharmacogenetic Test
    The Effra Clinic is working with Myogenes in partnership with Genomind to provide a pharmacogenetic test which provides information about how your genetic make up affects how your responce to medication. Genetic differences contribute to why some people have side effects and some do not, and why some people response well or poorly to certain medications. By analysing your genetic profile we can tailor your medication regimen more precisely to your individual needs and we seek to avoid some of the trial and error approach to prescribing which is standard in health care. Testing uses a sample of your cells swabbed from your cheek and it can be done at home. The Effra clinic clinicians liaise with the laboratory to interpret the results of testing and you are provided with detailed written reports More information about the Myogenes psychiatric pharmacogenetic test is here.
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